THE EVOLUTION OF THE PRIMATES 327
that Parapithecus is a Catarrhine with traces of its Tarsioid ancestry. As it lived at the very beginning of . the Oligocene Period it is a proof that Monkeys existed in the Eocene Period. And no fossil has yet been discovered of which it was the ancestor. Some believe, however, that it is on the line leading to Propliopithecus.
Propliopithecus is also known from an incomplete mandible which was discovered by Schlosser in 1911, It is the earliest Ape, so we must conclude that Egypt was the home of the Apes. The body of the mandible is deep, and the coronoid process is relatively lower when compared with the condyle than in Parapithecus. The halves of the angle unite in an acute angle, and the symphysis slopes downwards and backwards. The canine teeth are intermediate in size between those of Parapithecus and those of the higher Apes. The molar teeth have smooth enamel and have five cusps.
A considerable interval of time separated Propliopithecus from the more advanced Anthropoids, whose remains begin to appear in the Middle Miocene rocks of Northern India and Europe. During that interval the descendants of Propliopithecus migrated from Africa, and underwent more or less considerable structural changes, one of which was an increase in the size of the body. To reach their destinations they must have traversed stretches of land which are now submerged beneath the ocean. And there is evidence that such connections united Africa and Asia on more than one occasion.
In the year 1837 Monsieur Lartet announced to the Academy of Sciences at Paris that he had discovered the fossil remains of an Ape at Sansans near<*Auch in